Most often hormonal oral contraceptives are combined and their composition has low doses of estrogens and progestins. There was thus maintained relatively high plasma levels of female sex hormones, resulting in inhibiting the formation of the corresponding hypothalamic and adenohypophysis gonadotropins, and by this - and ovulation (anovulatory effect). Progestins influence and mucus secretion in the cervix, inhibit tubal motility and decreased ability nidatsionnata the endometrium.
Group of hormonal oral contraceptives consist of poly- and mono preparations.
Monophasic hormonal contraceptives contained in a fixed ratio estrogens and progestins in the 21-day period, including the proliferation and secretion phase of the menstrual cycle. Etinilestradiolat is used most frequently from estrogens and progestins from - desogestrel, levonorgestrel, norgestimate and norethisterone.
Typical of biphasic contraceptive is that during the first day is taken estrogen in higher dose, and was then added and progestin.
Three-phase contraceptives consist of a combination of estrogens and progestins, such as day and night doses are fixed in three successive stages. In two periods - respectively the first 7 days from the 15th to the 21st day of the menstrual cycle are estrogens in low doses, and by the 8th to the 14th day, the daily dose is high. Usually three-phase hormonal contraceptives have significant influence on lipids, glucose tolerance and blood pressure.
Representatives of monophasic hormonal contraceptives are:
Biphasic contraceptives are representative
Representatives of the three-phase contraceptives are:
Adverse effects while taking hormonal oral contraceptives include:
diarrhea or constipation
increase or decrease in appetite
bleeding or spotting between menstruation
painful or missed menstruation
changes in menstrual cycle
redness, irritation, burning or itching of the vagina
These side effects often disappear after use of the drug for several months. If not disappear necessary advice.
Some side effects when taking oral contraceptives can be serious. The following symptoms are not common, but if they occur, need immediate consultation with a physician:
sudden severe headache
lumps in the breast
chest pain or tightness in the chest
weakness or numbness in the hands or feet
swelling of the arms or legs
yellowing of the eyes or skin
severe stomach pain
coughing up blood
partial or complete loss of vision
extreme tiredness, weakness or lack of energy
menstrual bleeding that is unusually heavy or that lasts more than 7 days
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